Wednesday, July 15, 2020
Industry vs. Inferiority in Psychosocial Development Theories Psychosocial Psychology Print Industry vs. Inferiority in Psychosocial Development Stage Four of Psychosocial Development By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on April 21, 2017 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on December 08, 2019 Psychosocial Development Overview Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Integrity vs. Despair Industry versus inferiority is the fourth stage of Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development, which happens after the third stage of initiative versus guilt. The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of approximately six and eleven.?? Overview Psychosocial Conflict: Industry vs. InferiorityMajor Question: How can I be good?Basic Virtue: CompetenceImportant Event(s): School Verywell / Nusha Ashjaee Industry vs. Inferiority According to Eriksonâs theory, people progress through a series of stages as they develop and grow. Unlike many other developmental theories, Eriksonâs addresses changes that occur across the entire lifespan, from birth to death. Psychosocial theory does not focus on the obvious physical changes that occur as children grow up, but rather on the socioemotional factors that influence an individuals psychological growth.?? At each point in development, people cope with a psychosocial crisis. In order to resolve this crisis, children and adults are faced with mastering the developmental task primarily to that stage. If this skill is successfully achieved, it leads to an ability that contributes to lifelong well-being. For example, achieving trust is the primary task of the very first stage of development.?? It is an ability that contributes to emotional health throughout life during both childhood and adulthood. Failing to master these critical tasks, however, can result in social and emotional struggles that last a lifetime. So what exactly happens during the industry versus inferiority stage? What factors contribute to overall success at this point in development? What are some of the major events that contribute to psychosocial growth? The Social World Expands School and social interaction play an important role during this time of a childâs life.?? A childs social world expands considerably as they enter school and gain new friendships with peers. Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. During the earlier stages, a childâs interactions centered primarily on caregivers, family members, and others in their immediate household. As the school years begin, the realm of social influence increases dramatically. Friends and classmates play a role in how children progress through the industry versus inferiority stage. Through proficiency at play and schoolwork, children are able to develop a sense of competence and pride in their abilities. By feeling competent and capable, children are able to also form a strong self-concept. During social interactions with peers, some children may discover that their abilities are better than those of their friends or that their talents are highly prized by others.?? This can lead to feelings of confidence. In other cases, kids may discover that they are not quite as capable as the other kids, which can result in feelings of inadequacy. Schoolwork Helps Build Competency and Confidence At earlier stages of development, children were largely able to engage in activities for fun and to receive praise and attention. Once school begins, actual performance and skill are evaluated. Grades and feedback from educators encourage kids to pay more attention to the actual quality of their work. During the industry versus inferiority stage, children become capable of performing increasingly complex tasks. As a result, they strive to master new skills. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their abilities. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful. Children who struggle to develop this sense of competence may emerge from this stage with feelings of failure and inferiority. This can set the stage for later problems in development. People who dont feel competent in their ability to succeed may be less likely to try new things and more likely to assume that their efforts will not measure up under scrutiny. The Events of This Stage Can Help Build or Undermine Self-Confidence According to Erikson, this stage is vital in developing self-confidence.?? During school and other social activities, children receive praise and attention for performing various tasks such as reading, writing, drawing, and solving problems. Kids who do well in school are more likely to develop a sense of competence and confidence. They feel good about themselves and their ability to succeed. Children who struggle with schoolwork may have a harder time developing these feelings of sureness. Instead, they may be left with feelings of inadequacy and inferiority. How Can Parents and Teachers Foster Success During the Industry vs. Inferiority Stage? At this stage, it is important for both parents and teachers to offer support and encouragement. However, adults should be careful not to equate achievement with acceptance and love. Unconditional love and support from adults can help all children through this stage, but particularly those who may struggle with feelings of inferiority. Children who are overpraised, on the other hand, might develop a sense of arrogance. Clearly, balance plays a major role at this point in development. Parents can help kids develop a sense of realistic competence by avoiding excessive praise and rewards, encouraging efforts rather than outcome, and helping kids develop a growth mindset. Even if children struggle in some areas of school, encouraging kids in areas in which they excel can help foster feelings of competence and achievement.?? Example Perhaps the best way to visualize how the industry vs inferiority stage might impact a child is to look at an example. Imagine two children in the same 4th-grade class. Olivia finds science lessons difficult, but her parents are willing to help her each night with her homework. She also asks the teacher for help and starts to receive encouragement and praise for her efforts. Jack also struggles with science, but his parents are uninterested in assisting him with his nightly homework. He feels bad about the poor grades he receives on his science assignments but is not sure what to do about the situation. His teacher is critical of his work but does not offer any extra assistance or advice. Eventually, Jack just gives up, and his grades become even worse. While both children struggled with this aspect of school, Olivia received the support and encouragement she needed to overcome these difficulties and still build a sense of mastery. Jack, however, lacked the social and emotional encouragement he needed. In this area, Olivia will likely develop a sense of industry where Jack will be left with feelings of inferiority. Stage 5: Identity vs. Confusion
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Effects of Television on Our Society INTRODUCTION Plato once, prophetically, posed a question that hints at the very core of this project. In philosophizing on the issue of entertainment and its various, sometimes questionable, sources he asked his fellow citizens to consider the following Ã¢â¬Å"Shall we just carelessly allow our children to hear casual tales which may be devised by casual persons, and to receive into their minds ideas for the most part the very opposite of those which we should wish them to have when they are grown up?Ã¢â¬ Shall we indeed? It is an ongoing debate. Plato obviously recognized the power stories have to shape who and what we are, and although some may be reluctant to admit to how much influence TVÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The work of communication theorist and professor, Stuart Hall, confirms that meanings are not inherently in people; rather they are derived from external sources, one primary source being the mass media to which we are repeatedly exposed; in our homes, in our cars, and on the job. Hall asserts the media serves the myth of democratic pluralism-the pretense that society is held together by common norms, including equal opportunity, respect for diversity, individual rights..(Griffin 2000). TV sitcoms may not be intended to mirror our society, but they are perceived as such and the resulting ideology is a culture that at some level accepts whats being handed to them without examining the messages within. This newsletter is an attempt to examine these messages on a deepe r, more critical level. OUTLINE Race Portrayal and Sitcoms Gender Issues Stereotypes TV Families Television Violence Religion in Contemporary Sitcoms Religion in The Simpsons Pop Culture and The Simpsons Race Portrayal on Sitcoms In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, it is safe to say that everyone has seen at least one sitcom in his or her life. The sitcom is simply a show about day-to-day life, with funny situations and problems and obstacles that must be overcome. People can relate to sitcoms because the characters are just average families and average people with average jobs. Sitcoms are essentially tapping at the root of American Humanism; drawing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interest aboutShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Television On Our Society2061 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEveryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s heard of Autism or Down Syndrome, possibly even HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease, but there are many different kinds of genetic disorders that most people have never heard of or have only seen on television. Ectrodactyly is a rare disorder most people wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t know of, however if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve watched Ryan MurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s popular American Horror Story: Freak Show, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen it. It was formerly known as Ã¢â¬Ëlobster claw hand,Ã¢â ¬â¢ and in Freak Show, Jimmy Darling, portrayed by Evan Peters, has this disorder and is knownRead MoreThe Effects Of Television On Our Society881 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesshe ordered after watching its advert on television. I looked at her with a contemptuous smile, and said Ã¢â¬Å"You WishÃ¢â¬ . She started explaining to me how in the advert her favorite singer lost 25 lbs. in just two weeks by using this overpriced herbal formula. After two weeks, I visited her to see the awaited wonder, but I realized that she is one of the victims of lured advertisements, which are now part of our everyday life. 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Television is so much more powerful because it is able to reach more people at one time. Society also reflects what is publicized on television in various areas, as wellRead MoreNeil Postman s Exploration Of This Issue1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs everyone knows society has many problems, however many do not realize that root of these problems may stem from the way they are discussed and presented. When a person compares how information was obtained and current issues were discussed prior to this century they come to find that the contrast between now and then is so outstanding. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s completely clear why many people arenÃ¢â¬â¢t aware of what has been happening. The reason the difference is so profound is because our discourse has gradually beenRead MoreTelevision And Movies731 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesOne of the things that the television and movies cause us to do is to create stereotypes for people around us who are from numerous diverse social and cultural backgrounds. Television and films supply materials of which we form our very characteristics. These have shaped our sense of what our selves mean to ourselves; how we feel about being a male or a female; which class, ethnicity and race, of nationality we belong to, and of our sexuality; and of Ã¢â¬Å"usÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"them.Ã¢â¬ Perhaps the most significantRead MoreDesensitization From Lack Of Discretion1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestyrannical government, loss of freedoms such as our freedom of speech and our freedom of press, and a stronger presence of authority in our lives on the one side. On the other side our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s moral fabric could come apart, there could be a rise in violence, and the innocence of our children is at risk. It is the innocence of our children that we are going to take a closer look at. What par t does uncensored media play in the desensitization of our youth? Why should we be concerned about this issue
string(190) " gives light to another contrasting perspective about the importance of online social networks being highlighted by international media to emphasize the role of Western ideals of democracy\." Ã¢â¬Å"An Examination of the Role of Online Social Networks in the Uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt in 2010-11Ã¢â¬ In the academic research and journalism about the Arab Spring, there are contrasting views surrounding the importance of the Internet and online social networks in the success of the uprisings. Did the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt give validity to Egyptian Google executive Wael GhonimÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that Ã¢â¬Å"if you want to liberate a society, just give them InternetÃ¢â¬ (Ghonim CNN), or was the function of online social networks greatly exaggerated by international media to highlight Western ideals of democracy? This research paper will closely analyze the extent to which these online social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, mobile phone networks, and YouTube were used as tools for the organization and mobilization of civil disobedience in Tunisia and Egypt in 2010-11. It will examine the role and impact of online social networks and will assess whether they were merely extensions of offline communities or if they played an integral and mandatory role in these uprisings. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Networks and the Arab Spring or any similar topic only for you Order Now Though this paper will investigate the range of opinion on the impact of digital media in the Arab Spring, it will argue that online social networks played an integral role for Tunisian and Egyptian citizens in their rapid and successful uprisings. Online social networks blur geographical boundaries, which create opportunities for widespread communication, effective organization, mobilization of citizens, and the sharing of videos locally and internationally. Before the proliferation of digital media in the Middle East, these opportunities were not available to citizens and communication was limited to individual communities or offline networks. The combination and collaboration of already established offline networks, various digital technologies, and online social networks lead to the success of the civilians in overthrowing their governments. Despite the years of civil discontent and corruption in both the Ben Ali and Hosni Mubarak governments, revolution did not occur until digital media provided the opportunity for different communities and individuals to unite around their shared upsets and create mobilization strategies online. In Tunisia and Egypt, Ã¢â¬Å"social media have become the scaffolding upon which civil society can build, and new information technologies give activists things that they did not have before: information networks not easily controlled by the state and coordination tools that are already embedded in trusted networks of family and friendsÃ¢â¬ (Howard 2011). It will be shown that although online social networks act as an extension of the offline public sphere, their role in these uprisings was integral in creating an organizational infrastructure and to generate international awareness and aid against the corrupt governments. Discontent had been brewing in Tunisia for years during President Zine El Ben AliÃ¢â¬â¢s rule. In 2009 he was reelected for a fifth term with an overwhelmingly fraudulent 89% of voters (Chrisafis, 2011). Despite years of suffering from an oppressive regime, rising unemployment rates, and censorship, it was not until the self-immolation of a vendor, Mohamed Bouazizi, was documented and transmitted online that the revolution gained the awareness and support it needed to make a difference. There had been previous acts of protest, but Ã¢â¬Å"what made a difference this time is that the images of Bouazizi were put on FacebookÃ¢â¬ (Beaumont, 2011). A relative of Bouazizi, Rochdi Horchani, went so far as to state, Ã¢â¬Å"we could protest for years here, but without videos no one would take any notice of usÃ¢â¬ (Chrisafis, 2011). The revolutions in Tunisia inspired Egyptian activists to use similar tactics to evoke change in their own corrupt government. Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak ruled over Egypt from 1981 to 2011, when he was overthrown by the organized and effective protests of Egyptian citizens. Although social media and digital technologies had little to do with the underlying sociopolitical and socioeconomic factors behind the civil discontent, they played a rapid role in the disintegration of these two regimes. In addition, even though corruption had been occuring for many years in the governments, Ã¢â¬Å"all inciting incidents of the Arab Spring were digitally mediated in some wayÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2012) whether it was documented and disseminated online or discussed on an online social network. The corruption and discontent of the citizens may have inevitably lead to protests in both countries, but Ã¢â¬Å"social media was crucialÃ¢â¬ (Khondker, 2011) due to itÃ¢â¬â¢s communication and organizational abilities. The cruciality of online social networks and digital technologies is contested by theorists who argue that Ã¢â¬Å"other sociological factors such as widespread poverty and governmental ineptitude had created the conditions for extensive public angerÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2011) and that these preexisting conditions caused the revolutions. Several pundits including Gladwell and Friedman argue, Ã¢â¬Å"that while Facebook and Twitter may have had their place in social change, the real revolutions take place in the streetÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2011). Though these theorists are correct in their attribution to the already existing political discontent for the preconditions to the revolution, online social networks acted as a necessary extension of offline social networks and action. It is likely the successes of the protests in the streets would not have been as large without the communication potential of digital media. One pundit attributed the lack of violence in the revolutions to the digital media stating that the use of online social networks Ã¢â¬Å"may have less to do with fostering Western-style democracy than in encouraging relatively less violent forms of mass protestÃ¢â¬ (Stepanova, 2011). Now that citizens had other vessels to communicate internationally and were no longer censored and controlled by their state regulated media, the governments could not be so open about their brutality. Pundits such as Gladwell and Friedman overlook the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"digital media allowed local citizens access to international broadcast networks, networks which were then used by online civil society organizations to lobby advocacy campaignsÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2012). It was these social networks that aided Tunisian and Egyptian citizens with their success in the streets. The Arab Spring has also been attributed the nickname of Ã¢â¬Å"The Twitter RevolutionÃ¢â¬ (Stepanova, 2011) due to the large role Twitter and Facebook played in the uprisings. This nickname gives light to another contrasting perspective about the importance of online social networks being highlighted by international media to emphasize the role of Western ideals of democracy. You read "Social Networks and the Arab Spring" in category "Essay examples" Due to the fact that digital technologies and online social networks proliferated the West before the Middle East, the U. S claims credit for the democratizing effects they had on the Middle East during the Arab Spring (Stepanova, 2011). By emphasizing the power of new technologies in spreading Western democratic values, this approach ignores the socioeconomic and social equality dimensions of the massive protests in the Arab world. Ekaterina Stepanova states that Ã¢â¬Å"the automatic connection [The United States] makes between social media and a Western-style democracy agendaÃ¢â¬ (Stepanova, 2011) is a weak link in U. S policy. Social media tools with identical functions can operate differently in developed versus developing countries. It was not just the Western media which stressed the role of online social networks in the Arab Spring, but also local media and the civilians themselves. The role of Twitter and Facebook may have been emphasized in Western media due to their nationalistic attitude, but this should not downplay the actual importance that these technologies held in the uprising. During the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt, social networks were the key factor in the communication, mobilization, and organization of civilians. Civilians used their mobile phones or computers to access online social networks where they could discuss and plan tactics for the revolution, and disseminate messages and photos of what was occurring. During the anti-Mubarak protests, an Egyptian activist put it succinctly in a tweet: Ã¢â¬Å"we use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the worldÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2012). In the Ã¢â¬ËJasmine RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢, the role of mobile phones was integral in both sharing and receiving information. The phone acted as a tool which aided in the extension of offline networks into online. Now, civilians did not need to be face to face to communicate messages of discontent or plans for rebellion as they had mobile networks. The ability to message many people at one time of access their Facebook or Twitter from their phone was invaluable to the rebels. Reporters without Borders stated that Ã¢â¬Å"the role of cell phones also proved crucial [in Tunisia]. Citizen journalists kept file-sharing websites supplied with photos and videos, and fed images to streaming websitesÃ¢â¬ (Reporters without Borders, 2011). It was not just the vast communication abilities that aided citizens in the revolt, but by putting cameras in the hands of a plethora of Tunisians they became citizen journalists with the ability to show what was happening to them to the world. The ability for citizens to take part in news is very valuable as this was a time where all media broadcast institutions were state run. The great difference between what was being reported about through the citizens versus the state allowed those uprisings to share their side of the story. Government censorship was a huge problem in both Tunisia and Egypt, but censorship Ã¢â¬Å"made the new media more relevantÃ¢â¬ (Khondker, 2011). Social media was very useful for the citizens as it Ã¢â¬Å"brought the narrative of successful social protest across multiple, previously closed, media regimesÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2012). It was due to the mobile phone and heavy proliferation of online social networks that citizens could show proof of the injustices that were occurring through photo and video documentation on an international scale. In addition, communicating online was very effective for civilians since they could plan out offline protests with a mass audience. As stated, the internet blurs geographical boundaries, which allows revolutionary leaders and advocates to find each other and communicate online. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter provided citizens with a platform to discuss plans of action and reach mass audiences. The ability to reach so many people online was essential since Ã¢â¬Å"information and communication networks can serve as powerful accelerators of social transformationÃ¢â¬ (Stepanova, 2011). Facebook groups such as Ã¢â¬Å"We Are All Khaled SaidÃ¢â¬ enlisted 350,000 members before the 14th of January (Khondker, 2011). This group provided the members with an incomparable medium of communication to anything offline social networks could provide. In addition, other than attempted media blackouts by the governments, communication was rather unlimited online. Activists posted relatively freely, which indicated that Ã¢â¬Å"new information technology has clearly the transformative potential to open up spaces of freedomÃ¢â¬ (Khondker, 2011). The idea of online spaces as democratic and free draw upon Jurgen HabermasÃ¢â¬Ë concept of the public sphere. There are integral benefits of the internet in relation to HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ public sphere, such as the vast library of easily accessible information, a new platform for critical political discussion, the blurring of spacial boundaries, and the embracing of new technology. In the Arab Spring, the usage of the internet empowered HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ concept of deliberative democracy, which highlights Ã¢â¬Å"the role of open discussion, the importance of citizen participation, and the existence of a well-functioning public sphereÃ¢â¬ (Gimmler, 23). Habermas holds that deliberative democracy is based Ã¢â¬Å"on a foundation that enables the legitimacy of the constitutional state and civil society to be justifiedÃ¢â¬ (Gimmler, 23). He separates the Ã¢â¬Å"constitutional democratic state and its parliamentary and legal institutions, on one side, and the public sphere of civil society and its more direct communication and discursive foundations, on the otherÃ¢â¬ (Gimmler 24). The opposition between the corrupt governments and civilians was represented on online social networks. Civilians used social networks as spaces of deliberative democracy, which acted as an online public sphere. Henry Brady states that Ã¢â¬Å"meaningful democratic participation requires that the voices of citizens in politics be clear, loud, and equalÃ¢â¬ (Hindeman, 6), online social networks give power to those voices that are silenced by state regulations. The fact that Ã¢â¬Å"information technologies have opened up new paths to democratization and the entrenchment of civil society in many Arab countriesÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2012) attests to their function as a public sphere. Though there were effective offline social networks such as the Church, family, and friends, Ã¢â¬Å"the networks of people who did mobilize, did so with the direct application, initiation, and coordination, of digital media toolsÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2012). Online social networks acted as extensions of offline networks that were already present, but also provided the opportunity to reach a much larger amount of people. The plans and decisions made on the online networks made the offline protests so successful. Virtual networks materialized before street protest networksÃ¢â¬ (Hussain, 2012), which shows the importance of online social networks. In the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt, there was no single social network that was completely responsible for the success of the revolution. Instead, it was the combination of mobile phones, the internet, and traditional broadcast media which aided citizens in forming powerful networks which strengthened their cause. Castells defines a network s ociety as Ã¢â¬Å"a society whose social structure is made of networks powered by microelectronics-based information and communication technologies. By social structure, [he] understands the organizational arrangements of humans in relations of experience and power expressed in meaningful communication coded by cultureÃ¢â¬ (Castells, 2004). This definition accurately describes the atmosphere in both Tunisia and Egypt during their revolutions due to the reliance on online social networks. In both Tunisia and Egypt, there was a manifestation of technology which aided citizens in communicating. Social networking sites, instantaneous internet, and always-available mobile phones created a powerful network which allowed citizens to always be connected to each other. Some degree of formal organizational and informal networks is necessary for revolution in order to communicate and plan. Egyptians utilized heavy social media connectivity through the use of the mobile device via texting of internet through their phone rather than personal computer. One Egyptian citizen tweeted on January 26th, 2011 Ã¢â¬Å"You who have Twitter and Facebook working on your phone, use them to spread words of hope. We wonÃ¢â¬â¢t let this end here #jan25 was just the startÃ¢â¬ (Boyd, 2011). Citizens were encouraging each other to avoid traditional forms of communications via the internet to avoid government censorship and interference. Castells stated that Ã¢â¬Å"thus was born a new system of mass communication built like a mix between an interactive television, internet, radio and mobile communication systems. The communication of the future is already used by the revolutions of the presentÃ¢â¬ (Castells, 2011, emphasis on the original) when describing the use of technologies in the Arab Spring. The issue of censorship posed a large barricade on the protesters due to their reliance on social networks and the internet. The Ben Ali regime realized the importance of Facebook in early January 2011 and stepped up their censorship with attempts to curb the heavy distribution of photos of protests and repression. There was increasing interest from the foreign media due to the power of ICTÃ¢â¬â¢s in spreading the story worldwide, which also influenced the state to up online censorship. The head of the Agencie Tunisienne dÃ¢â¬â¢Internet (ATI) said Ã¢â¬Å"the number of websites blocked by the authorities doubled in just a few weeks. More than 100 Facebook pages about the Sidi Bouzid events were blocked, along with online articles about the unrest in foreign mediaÃ¢â¬ ¦ olice also hacked into Facebook accounts to steal activists passwords and infiltrate networks of citizen-journalistsÃ¢â¬ (Reporters Without Borders, 2011) . It was the power of networks which allowed the citizens to overcome the censorship of the government. Due to the many options of communications devices, when one was blocked citiz ens would resort to another. In addition, citizens found ways around the internet blockage and activist hacker groups rebutted with hacks on government websites and found technical ways to pass on news and demands from inside Tunisia. The positive role of technology within the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt cannot be disputed. Although, such heavy use of technology caused the corrupt governments to attempt to intervene, the positives far outweigh the negatives. Information and communications technologies allowed oppressed citizens to rise above the government through the power of mobility, networks, and information. The portability of the cell phones partnered with the creation of networks through the multiple technologies utilized allowed the voice of the citizens to be heard worldwide. The positive effect these technologies had in empowering the both the Tunisians and the Egyptians is clear in the mere rapidity that they overthrew their corrupt governments once they started revolting. In addition, it is clear that these ICTÃ¢â¬â¢s had a large effect since the government responded so harshly towards them, clearly feeling threatened. Overall, it is evident that ICTÃ¢â¬â¢s played a large role in the effective and swift revolutions which started the domino effect of the Arab Spring. *Copy Right- Nobody has permission to use my work in their own academic research* How to cite Social Networks and the Arab Spring, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Teaching Creationism Essay I believe in creation. I believe that God created the world. I believe in the bible story of creation, but I think that when they say that God created the world in six days that they might not have meant six days as in what we think of as a days. God could have used evolution to create the world, but I dont really know if I believe that he did or not. I believe that Adam and Eve were the first humans on Earth. I believe that evolution could possibly have something to do with how they were created, but I dont know how. I believe that God made people pretty much exactly how they are and they havent evolved from anything else. I think that God made humans special and different than any other kind of animal. I think that God created animals pretty much how they are and all the different kinds differently. I think different species have changed slowly over the years to adapt to their environment which has also changed slowly, but I dont think that all animals evolved from a single ancestor. We will write a custom essay on Teaching Creationism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now I dont believe in evolution for many reasons. First of all God creating the world doesnt seem to fit in with evolution, but it could just be the way he created the world. Also I thought that evolution was just a theory that no one could prove. And whatever proof I saw for evolution I saw equally valid proof for creation too. I also believe in creation because I was always taught that there is not a lot of proof that God exists you just have to believe that he created the world .
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
How to Conjugate the Verb Potere in Italian Talking about what you can and canÃ¢â¬â¢t do is a basic cornerstone of everyday conversation, so youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to want to know the verb Ã¢â¬Å"potereÃ¢â¬ and its conjugations inside and out. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, itÃ¢â¬â¢s an irregular verb, so it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the typical -ere verb ending pattern. Below youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find all of its conjugation tables as well as examples. Some definitions of Ã¢â¬Å"potereÃ¢â¬ include: To be able toCanMay What to know about potere: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a transitive verb, so it takes a direct object.When itÃ¢â¬â¢s used as a modal verb, it usually takes the auxiliary verb required by the verb it is paired with.The infinito is Ã¢â¬Å"potereÃ¢â¬ .The participio passato is Ã¢â¬Å"potutoÃ¢â¬ .The gerund form is Ã¢â¬Å"potendoÃ¢â¬ .The past gerund form is Ã¢â¬Å"avendo potutoÃ¢â¬ . INDICATIVO/INDICATIVE Il presente io posso noi possiamo tu puoi voi potete lui, lei, Lei pu loro, Loro possono Esempi: Possiamo andare al Colosseo? - Can we go to the Coliseum?Mi puÃ ² aiutare? - Can you help me? (formal)Loro possono fare tutto quello che vogliono. - They can do whatever they want. Il passato prossimo io ho potuto noi abbiamo potuto tu hai potuto voi avete potuto lui, lei, Lei ha potuto loro, Loro hanno potuto Esempi: LÃ¢â¬â¢anno scorso ho guadagnato un sacco di soldi, cosÃ ¬ ho potuto comprare una nuova macchina! Ã - Last year I earned a bunch of money, so I was able to buy a new car.Non ti abbiamo potuto aspettare. - We couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t wait for you. LÃ¢â¬â¢imperfetto io potevo noi potevamo tu potevi voi potevate lui, lei, Lei poteva loro, Loro potevano Esempi: CÃ¢â¬â¢erano tante lingue tra cui potevo scegliere ad imparare, perÃ ² alla fine, ho scelto lÃ¢â¬â¢Italiano. - There were a lot of languages I could have chosen to learn, but in the end, I chose Italian.Quando mi ha raccontato la storia, non ci potevo credere! - When he told me the story, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe it! Il trapassato prossimo io avevo potuto noi avevamo potuto tu avevi potuto voi avevate potuto lui, lei, Lei aveva potuto loro, Loro avevano potuto Esempi: Non avevo mai potuto studiare allÃ¢â¬â¢estero. - I had never been able to study abroad.Era il massimo che loro avevano potuto fare. - It was the maximum they had been able to do. Il passato remoto io potei/potetti noi potemmo tu potesti voi poteste lui, lei, Lei pot/potette loro, Loro poterono/potettero Esempi: LÃ¢â¬â¢esercito di Napoleone non potÃ © sopravvivere nella campagna sperduta della Russia durante lÃ¢â¬â¢inverno. - NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s army couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t survive in the hopeless countryside of Russia during the winter.I nostri bisnonni non poterono/potettero viaggiare dapertutto come possiamo attualmente. - Our great-grandparents couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t travel anywhere like we can now. Il trapassato remoto io ebbi potuto noi avemmo potuto tu avesti potuto voi aveste potuto lui, lei, Lei ebbe potuto essi, Loro ebbero potuto Esempi: Quando i bambini ebbero potuto, mangiarono le caramelle. - When kids were could, they ate candies.Continuai a ripetere la stessa frase, finchÃ ¨ Mary ebbe potuto capire. - I kept repeating the same sentence, until Mary was able to understand. TIP: This tense is rarely used, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry too much about mastering it. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll find it in very sophisticated writing, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s about it. Il futuro semplice io potr noi potremo tu potrai voi potrete lui, lei, Lei potr loro, Loro potranno Esempi: Quando tornano a casa, potremo andare a cena. - When they return home, we will be able to go to dinner.Potranno guardare il film con noi? - Will they will be able to watch the movie with us? Il futuro anteriore io avr potuto noi avremo potuto tu avrai potuto voi avrete potuto lui, lei, Lei avr potuto loro, Loro avranno potuto Esempi: Avevi il pomeriggio libero, avrai potuto dedicarti a te stessa! - You had a free afternoon, you must have dedicated time to yourself! Come avrete potuto notare avete passato lÃ¢â¬â¢esame! - As you will have noticed, you passed the exam! CONGIUNTIVO/SUBJUNCTIVE Il presente io possa noi possiamo tu possa voi possiate lui, lei, Lei possa loro, Loro possano Esempi: Penso che, dato che ho gi il visto, io possa vivere in Italia per un anno. - Given that I already have a visa, I think that I live in Italy for a year.Sono contenta che tu possa venire con noi. - IÃ¢â¬â¢m happy that you can come with us. Il passato io abbia potuto noi abbiamo potuto tu abbia potuto voi abbiate potuto lui, lei, Lei abbia potuto loro, Loro abbiano potuto Esempi: Sono felice che Leonardo abbia potuto aiutarti. - IÃ¢â¬â¢m happy that Leonardo was able to help you.Non siamo sicuri se abbiano potuto trovare la scuola. - WeÃ¢â¬â¢re not sure if they were able to find the school. LÃ¢â¬â¢imperfetto io potessi noi potessimo tu potessi voi poteste lui, lei, Lei potesse loro, Loro potessero Esempi: Speravo che lui potesse aiutarmi! - I hoped that he would be able to help me!Credeva che potesse cercare un nuovo lavoro senza problemi. - She believed she would be able to find a new job without problems. Il trapassato prossimo io avessi potuto noi avessimo potuto tu avessi potuto voi aveste potuto lui, lei, Lei avesse potuto loro, Loro avessero potuto Esempi: Vorrei che loro avessero potuto vederci! - I wish they could have seen us!Loro sono entrati alla festa, senza che la padrona di casa avesse potuto fare niente. - They showed up at the party, without the owner of the house could have done anything. CONDIZIONALE/CONDITIONAL Il presente io potrei noi potremmo tu potresti voi potreste lui, lei, Lei potrebbe loro, Loro potrebbero Esempi: Potrei andarci, perÃ ² non voglio. - I could go there, but I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to.Lei vuole viaggiare? Potrebbe andare in Francia e fare WOOFing. - She wants to travel? She could go to France and do WOOFing. Il passato io avrei potuto noi avremmo potuto tu avresti potuto voi avreste potuto lui, lei, Lei avrebbe potuto loro, Loro avrebbero potuto Avrei potuto dirtelo, ma ho pensato non fossi pronta. - I could have told you, but I thought you werenÃ¢â¬â¢t ready.Avrebbe potuto scrivere almeno una e-mail! - She could have written at least one e-mail!
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was created by the Treaty of Lagos in Lagos, Nigeria, on May, 28, 1975. It had its roots in earlier attempts at a West African economic community in the 1960s and was spearheaded by Yakuba Gowon of Nigeria and Gnassigbe Eyadema of Togo. The primary purpose of ECOWAS is to promote economic trade, national cooperation, and monetary union, for growth and development throughout West Africa.Ã A revised treaty intended to accelerate the integration of economic policy and improve political cooperation was signed on July 24, 1993. It set out the goals of a common economic market, a single currency, the creation of a West African parliament, economic and social councils, and a court of justice. The court primarily interprets and mediates disputes over ECOWAS policies and relations, but has the power to investigate alleged human rights abuses in member countries. Membership There are currently 15 member countries in the Economic Community of West African States. The founding members of ECOWAS were: Benin, CÃ ´te dIvoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania (left 2002), Niger, Nigeria, Senegal,Ã Sierra Leone, Togo, andÃ Burkina FasoÃ (which joined asÃ Upper Volta).Ã Cape VerdeÃ joined in 1977; Morocco requested membership in 2017, and the same year Mauritania requested to rejoin, but the details have yet to be worked out. ECOWAS member countries have three official state languages (French, English, and Portuguese), and well over a thousand existing local languages including cross-border native tongues such as Ewe, Fulfulde, Hausa, Mandingo, Wolof, Yoruba, and Ga. Structure The structure of the Economic Community has changed several times over the years.Ã In June 2019, ECOWAS has seven active institutions: the Authority of Heads of State and Government (which is the leading body), the ECOWAS Commission (the administrative instrument), the Community Parliament, the Community Court of Justice, the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID, also known as the Fund), the West African Health Organisation (WAHO), and the Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing in West Africa (GIABA).Ã .Ã The treaties also provide for an advisory Economic and Social Council, but ECOWAS does not list this as part of its current structure. In addition to these seven institutions, specialized agencies in ECOWAS include the West African Monetary Agency (WAMA), the Regional Agency for Agriculture and Food (RAAF), ECOWAS Regional Electricity Regulatory Authority (ERERA), ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency(ECREEE), The West African Power Pool (WAPP), ECOWAS BROWN CARD, ECOWAS Gender Development Centre (EGDC),Ã ECOWAS Youth and Sports Development Centre (EYSDC), West African Monetary Institute (WAMI), and ECOWAS infrastructure Projects. Peacekeeping EffortsÃ The 1993 treaty also laid the burden of settling regional conflicts on the treaty members, and subsequent policies have established and defined the parameters of ECOWAS peacekeeping forces. The ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring Group (known as ECOMOG) was created as a peacekeeping force for the civil wars in Liberia (1990Ã¢â¬â1998), Sierra Leone (1991Ã¢â¬â2001), Guinea-Bissau (1998Ã¢â¬â1999), and Cote DIvoire (2002) and was disbanded at their cessation.Ã ECOWAS does not have a standing force; each force raised is known by the mission for which it is created.Ã The peacekeeping efforts undertaken by ECOWAS are just one indication of the increasingly multifaceted nature of the economic communitys efforts to promote and ensure the prosperity and development of West Africa and the well-being of its people. Revised and Expanded by Angela Thompsell Sources Ecowas agrees to admit Morocco to West African body. BBC News, 5 June 2017.Francis, David J. Peacekeeping in a Bad Neighbourhood: The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Peace and Security in West Africa. African Journal on Conflict Resolution 9.3 (2009): 87Ã¢â¬â116. Goodridge, R. B. The Economic Community of West African States, inÃ Economic Integration of West African Nations: A Synthesis for Sustainable Development. International MBA Thesis, National Cheng Chi University, 2006.Obi, Cyril I. Economic Community of West African States on the Ground: Comparing Peacekeeping in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, and CÃ ´te dIvoire. African Security 2.2Ã¢â¬â3 (2009): 119Ã¢â¬â35. Okolo, Julius Emeka. Integrative and Cooperative Regionalism: The Economic Community of West African States. International Organization 39.1 (1985): 121Ã¢â¬â53. Osadolor, Osarhieme Benson. The Evolution of Policy on Security and Defence in ECOWAS, 1978Ã¢â¬â2008. Journal of t he Historical Society of Nigeria 20 (2011): 87Ã¢â¬â103. The Economic Community of West African States, official website